Pathogenesis of SCA3 and implications for other polyglutamine diseases

Summary

Tandem repeat diseases include the neurodegenerative disorders known as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, caused by CAG repeat expansions in the coding regions of the respective disease genes. The nine known polyQ disease include Huntington's disease (HD), dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), and six spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, and SCA17). The underlying disease mechanism in the polyQ diseases is thought principally to reflect dominant toxic properties of the disease proteins which, when harboring a polyQ expansion, differentially interact with protein partners and are prone to aggregate. Among the polyQ diseases, SCA3 is the most common SCA, and second to HD in prevalence worldwide. Here we summarize current understanding of SCA3 disease mechanisms within the broader context of the broader polyQ disease field. We emphasize properties of the disease protein, ATXN3, and new discoveries regarding three potential pathogenic mechanisms: 1) altered protein homeostasis; 2) DNA damage and dysfunctional DNA repair; and 3) nonneuronal contributions to disease. We conclude with an overview of the therapeutic implications of recent mechanistic insights. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Authors McLoughlin HS, Moore LR, Paulson HL
Journal Neurobiology of disease
Publication Date 2019 Oct 24;134:104635
PubMed 31669734
DOI 10.1016/j.nbd.2019.104635

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