M. tuberculosis infection of human iPSC-derived macrophages reveals complex membrane dynamics during xenophagy evasion


Xenophagy is an important cellular defence mechanism against cytosol-invading pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Activation of xenophagy in macrophages targets Mtb to autophagosomes; however, how Mtb is targeted to autophagosomes in human macrophages at a high spatial and temporal resolution is unknown. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages (iPSDMs) to study the human macrophage response to Mtb infection and the role of the ESX-1 type VII secretion system. Using RNA-seq, we identify ESX-1-dependent transcriptional responses in iPSDMs after infection with Mtb. This analysis revealed differential inflammatory responses and dysregulated pathways such as eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) signalling and protein ubiquitylation. Moreover, live-cell imaging revealed that Mtb infection in human macrophages induces dynamic ESX-1-dependent, LC3B-positive tubulovesicular autophagosomes (LC3-TVS). Through a correlative live-cell and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB SEM) approach, we show that upon phagosomal rupture, Mtb induces the formation of LC3-TVS, from which the bacterium is able to escape to reside in the cytosol. Thus, iPSDMs represent a valuable model for studying spatiotemporal dynamics of human macrophage-Mtb interactions, and Mtb is able to evade capture by autophagic compartments. © 2020. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

Authors Bernard EM, Fearns A, Bussi C, Santucci P, Peddie CJ, Lai RJ, Collinson LM, Gutierrez MG
Journal Journal of cell science
Publication Date 2020 Nov 25;134(5)
PubMed 32938685
PubMed Central PMC7710011
DOI 10.1242/jcs.252973

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