Superoxide dismutase isozymes in cerebral organoids from autism spectrum disorder patients


Autism spectrum disorder is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder with a substantial contribution to the global disease burden. Despite intensive research efforts, the aetiopathogenesis remains unclear. The Janus-faced antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1-3 have been implicated in initiating oxidative stress and as such may constitute a potential therapeutic target. However, no measurement has been taken in human autistic brain samples. The aim of this study is to measure superoxide dismutase 1-3 in autistic cerebral organoids as an in vitro model of human foetal neurodevelopment. Whole brain organoids were created from induced pluripotent stem cells from healthy individuals (n = 5) and individuals suffering from autism (n = 4). Using Pierce bicinchoninic acid and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the protein and superoxide dismutase 1, 2, and 3 concentrations were quantified in the cerebral organoids at days 22, 32, and 42. Measurements were normalized to the protein concentration. Results represented using medians and interquartile ranges. Using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, an abrupt rise in the superoxide dismutase concentration was observed at day 32 and onwards. Using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, no differences were observed between healthy (SOD1: 35.56 ng/mL ± 3.46; SOD2: 2435.80 ng/mL ± 1327.00; SOD3: 1854.88 ng/mL ± 867.94) and autistic (SOD1: 32.85 ng/mL ± 5.26; SOD2: 2717.80 ng/mL ± 1889.10; SOD3: 1690.18 ng/mL ± 615.49) organoids. Cerebral organoids recapitulate many aspects of human neurodevelopment, but the diffusion restriction may render efforts in modelling differences in oxidative stress futile due to the intrinsic hypoxia and central necrosis. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.

Authors Ejlersen M, Ilieva M, Michel TM
Journal Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
Publication Date 2022 Jun;129(5-6):617-626
PubMed 35266053
DOI 10.1007/s00702-022-02472-x

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