GLIS1-3: Links to Primary Cilium, Reprogramming, Stem Cell Renewal, and Disease
The GLI-Similar 1-3 (GLIS1-3) genes, in addition to encoding GLIS1-3 Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factors, also generate circular GLIS (circGLIS) RNAs. GLIS1-3 regulate gene transcription by binding to GLIS binding sites in target genes, whereas circGLIS RNAs largely act as miRNA sponges. GLIS1-3 play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes and have been implicated in various pathologies. GLIS protein activities appear to be regulated by primary cilium-dependent and -independent signaling pathways that via post-translational modifications may cause changes in the subcellular localization, proteolytic processing, and protein interactions. These modifications can affect the transcriptional activity of GLIS proteins and, consequently, the biological functions they regulate as well as their roles in disease. Recent studies have implicated GLIS1-3 proteins and circGLIS RNAs in the regulation of stemness, self-renewal, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell reprogramming, lineage determination, and differentiation. These biological processes are interconnected and play a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and cell plasticity. Dysregulation of these processes are part of many pathologies. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the roles GLIS proteins and circGLIS RNAs in the control of these biological processes in relation to their regulation of normal physiological functions and disease.
|Authors||Jetten AM, Scoville DW, Kang HS|
|Publication Date||2022 Jun 3;11(11)|