Familial Alzheimer's Disease and Recessive Modifiers


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is progressive brain disorder that affects ~ 50 million people worldwide and has no current effective treatment. AD age of onset (ADAOO) has shown to be critical for the identification of genes that modify the appearance of AD signs and symptoms in a specific population. We clinically characterized and whole-exome genotyped 71 individuals with AD from the Paisa genetic isolate, segregating the (PSEN1) E280A dominant fully penetrant mutation, and analyzed the potential recessive effects of ~ 50,000 common functional genomic variants to the ADAOO. Standard quality control and filtering procedures were applied, and recessive single- and multi-locus linear mixed-effects models were used. We identified genetic variants in the SLC9C1, CSN1S1, and LOXL4 acting recessively to delay ADAOO up to ~ 11, ~ 6, and ~ 9 years on average, respectively. In contrast, the CC recessive genotype in marker DHRS4L2-rs2273946 accelerates ADAOO by ~ 8 years. This study, reports new recessive variants modifying ADAOO in PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers. This set of genes are implicated in important biological processes and molecular functions commonly affected by genes associated with the etiology of AD such as APP, APOE, and CLU. Future functional studies using modern techniques such as induced pluripotent stem cells will allow a better understanding of the over expression and down regulation of these recessive modifier variants and hence the pathogenesis of AD. These results are important for prediction of AD and ultimately, substantial to develop new therapeutic strategies for individuals at risk or affected by AD.

Authors Vélez JI, Lopera F, Silva CT, Villegas A, Espinosa LG, Vidal OM, Mastronardi CA, Arcos-Burgos M
Journal Molecular neurobiology
Publication Date 2020 Feb;57(2):1035-1043
PubMed 31664702
PubMed Central PMC7031188
DOI 10.1007/s12035-019-01798-0

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