A Concise Review on Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes for Personalized Regenerative Medicine
The induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are derived from somatic cells by using reprogramming factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) or Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28 (OSNL). They resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and have the ability to differentiate into cell lineage of all three germ-layer, including cardiomyocytes (CMs). The CMs can be generated from iPSCs by inducing embryoid bodies (EBs) formation and treatment with activin A, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), and inhibitors of Wnt signaling. However, these iPSC-derived CMs are a heterogeneous population of cells and require purification and maturation to mimic the in vivo CMs. The matured CMs can be used for various therapeutic purposes in regenerative medicine by cardiomyoplasty or through the development of tissue-engineered cardiac patches. In recent years, significant advancements have been made in the isolation of iPSC and their differentiation, purification, and maturation into clinically usable CMs. Newer small molecules have also been identified to substitute the reprogramming factors for iPSC generation as well as for direct differentiation of somatic cells into CMs without an intermediary pluripotent state. This review provides a concise update on the generation of iPSC-derived CMs and their application in personalized cardiac regenerative medicine. It also discusses the current limitations and challenges in the application of iPSC-derived CMs. Graphical abstract.
|Pushp P, Nogueira DES, Rodrigues CAV, Ferreira FC, Cabral JMS, Gupta MK
|Stem cell reviews and reports