CADASIL from Bench to Bedside: Disease Models and Novel Therapeutic Approaches
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a monogenic disease caused by NOTCH3 mutations and characterized by typical clinical, neuroradiological, and pathological features. NOTCH3 belongs to a family of highly conserved transmembrane receptors rich of epidermal growth factor repeats, mostly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, which perform essential developmental functions and are involved in tissues maintenance and renewal. To date, no therapeutic option for CADASIL is available except for few symptomatic treatments. Novel in vitro and in vivo models are continuously explored with the aim to investigate underlying pathogenic mechanisms and to test novel therapeutic approaches. In this scenario, knock-out, knock-in, and transgenic mice studies have generated a large amount of information on molecular and biological aspects of CADASIL, despite that they incompletely reproduce the human phenotype. Moreover, the field of in vitro models has been revolutionized in the last two decades by the introduction of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology. As a consequence, novel therapeutic approaches, including immunotherapy, growth factors administration, and antisense oligonucleotides, are currently under investigation. While waiting that further studies confirm the promising results obtained, the data reviewed suggest that our therapeutic approach to the disease could be transformed, generating new hope for the future.
|Authors||Manini A, Pantoni L|
|Publication Date||2021 Jun;58(6):2558-2573|