Abrogation of LRRK2 dependent Rab10 phosphorylation with TLR4 activation and alterations in evoked cytokine release in immune cells
LRRK2 protein is expressed prominently in immune cells, cell types whose contribution to LRRK2-associated genetic Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasingly being recognised. We investigated the effect of inflammatory stimuli using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells as model systems. A detailed time course of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation was investigated through measuring LRRK2 phosphorylation at its specific phospho-sites, and Rab8 and Rab10 phosphorylation together with cytokine release following treatment with LPS and zymosan. LRRK2 phosphorylation at Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973 was increased significantly over untreated conditions at 4-24h in both WT-LRRK2 and T1348N-LRRK2 cell lines to similar extents although levels of Ser910 phosphorylation were maintained at higher levels throughout. Importantly we demonstrate that LPS stimulation significantly decreased phospho-Rab10 but not phospho-Rab8 levels over 4-24h in both WT-LRRK2 and T1348N-LRRK2 cell lines. The dephosphorylation of Rab10 was not attributed to its specific phosphatase, PPM1H as the levels remained unaltered with LPS treatment. MAPK phosphorylation occurred prior to LRRK2 phosphorylation which was validated by blocking TLR4 and TLR2 receptors with TAK242 or Sparstolonin B respectively. A significant decrease in basal level of TNFα release was noted in both T1348N-LRRK2 and KO-LRRK2 cell lines at 48h compared to WT-LRRK2 cell line, however LPS and zymosan treatment did not cause any significant alteration in the TNFα and IL-6 release between the three cell lines. In contrast, LPS and zymosan caused significantly lower IL-10 release in T1348N-LRRK2 and KO-LRRK2 cell lines. A significant decrease in phospho-Rab10 levels was also confirmed in human IPS-derived macrophages with TLR4 activation. Our data demonstrates for the first time that LRRK2-dependent Rab10 phosphorylation is modulated by LPS stimulation, and that cytokine release may be influenced by the status of LRRK2. These data provide further insights into the function of LRRK2 in immune response, and has relevance for understanding cellular dysfunctions when developing LRRK2-based inhibitors for clinical treatment. Crown Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Authors||Nazish I, Arber C, Piers TM, Warner TT, Hardy JA, Lewis PA, Pocock JM, Bandopadhyay R|
|Publication Date||2021 Jul;147:105070|