Assessment of mitophagy in human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes


Defective mitophagy contributes to normal aging and various neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The newly developed methodologies to visualize and quantify mitophagy allow for additional progress in defining the pathophysiological significance of mitophagy in various model organisms. However, current knowledge regarding mitophagy relevant to human physiology is still limited. Model organisms such as mice might not be optimal models to recapitulate all the key aspects of human disease phenotypes. The development of the human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may provide an exquisite approach to bridge the gap between animal mitophagy models and human physiology. To explore this premise, we take advantage of the pH-dependent fluorescent mitophagy reporter, mt-Keima, to assess mitophagy in hiPSCs and hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). We demonstrate that mt-Keima expression does not affect mitochondrial function or cardiomyocytes contractility. Comparison of hiPSCs and hiPSC-CMs during different stages of differentiation revealed significant variations in basal mitophagy. In addition, we have employed the mt-Keima hiPSC-CMs to analyze how mitophagy is altered under certain pathological conditions including treating the hiPSC-CMs with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug well known to cause life-threatening cardiotoxicity, and hypoxia that stimulates ischemia injury. We have further developed a chemical screening to identify compounds that modulate mitophagy in hiPSC-CMs. The ability to assess mitophagy in hiPSC-CMs suggests that the mt-Keima hiPSCs should be a valuable resource in determining the role mitophagy plays in human physiology and hiPSC-based disease models. The mt-Keima hiPSCs could prove a tremendous asset in the search for pharmacological interventions that promote mitophagy as a therapeutic target.Abbreviations: AAVS1: adeno-associated virus integration site 1; AKT/protein kinase B: AKT serine/threonine kinase; CAG promoter: cytomegalovirus early enhancer, chicken ACTB/β-actin promoter; CIS: cisplatin; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; FACS: fluorescence-activated cell sorting; FCCP: carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone; hiPSC: human induced pluripotent stem cell; hiPSC-CMs: human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes; ISO: isoproterenol; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PINK1: PTEN induced kinase 1; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; RT: room temperature; SB: SBI-0206965; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1.

Authors Yang M, Fu JD, Zou J, Sridharan D, Zhao MT, Singh H, Krigman J, Khan M, Xin G, Sun N
Journal Autophagy
Publication Date 2022 Oct;18(10):2481-2494
PubMed 35220905
PubMed Central PMC9542630
DOI 10.1080/15548627.2022.2037920

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