Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Drug Discovery in Niemann-Pick Type C1
The lysosomal storage disorders Niemann-Pick disease Type C1 (NPC1) and Type C2 (NPC2) are rare diseases caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Both NPC1 and NPC2 are proteins responsible for the exit of cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/LY). Consequently, mutations in one of the two proteins lead to the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in LE/LY, displaying a disease hallmark. A total of 95% of cases are due to a deficiency of NPC1 and only 5% are caused by NPC2 deficiency. Clinical manifestations include neurological symptoms and systemic symptoms, such as hepatosplenomegaly and pulmonary manifestations, the latter being particularly pronounced in NPC2 patients. NPC1 and NPC2 are rare diseases with the described neurovisceral clinical picture, but studies with human primary patient-derived neurons and hepatocytes are hardly feasible. Obviously, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their derivatives are an excellent alternative for indispensable studies with these affected cell types to study the multisystemic disease NPC1. Here, we present a review focusing on studies that have used iPSCs for disease modeling and drug discovery in NPC1 and draw a comparison to commonly used NPC1 models.
|Völkner C, Liedtke M, Hermann A, Frech MJ
|International journal of molecular sciences
|2021 Jan 12;22(2)