Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from developing and arrested embryos
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold huge promise in modern regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and as a model for studying early human development. However, usage of embryos and derivation of hESC for research and potential medical application has resulted in polarized ethical debates since the process involves destruction of viable developing human embryos. Here we describe that not only developing embryos (morulae and blastocysts) of both good and poor quality but also arrested embryos could be used for the derivation of hESC. Analysis of arrested embryos demonstrated that these embryos express pluripotency marker genes such OCT4, NANOG, and REX1. Derived hESC lines also expressed specific pluripotency markers (TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA4, alkaline phosphatase, OCT4, NANOG, TERT, and REX1) and differentiated under in vitro and in vivo conditions into derivates of all three germ layers. All of the new lines, including lines derived from late arrested embryos, have normal karyotypes. These results demonstrate that arrested embryos are additional valuable resources to surplus and donated developing embryos and should be used to study early human development or derive pluripotent hESC.
|Authors||Zhang X, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S, Cooke M, Armstrong L, Lako M, Stojkovic M|
|Journal||Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)|
|Publication Date||2006 Dec;24(12):2669-76|