Developmental principles informing human pluripotent stem cell differentiation to cartilage and bone
Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into any cell type given appropriate signals and hence have been used to research early human development of many tissues and diseases. Here, we review the major biological factors that regulate cartilage and bone development through the three main routes of neural crest, lateral plate mesoderm and paraxial mesoderm. We examine how these routes have been used in differentiation protocols that replicate skeletal development using human pluripotent stem cells and how these methods have been refined and improved over time. Finally, we discuss how pluripotent stem cells can be employed to understand human skeletal genetic diseases with a developmental origin and phenotype, and how developmental protocols have been applied to gain a better understanding of these conditions. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
|Authors||Humphreys PA, Mancini FE, Ferreira MJS, Woods S, Ogene L, Kimber SJ|
|Journal||Seminars in cell & developmental biology|
|Publication Date||2022 Jul;127:17-36|